The Impossible Superconductor LK-99 Was Independently Confirmed Today

Superconductor LK-99 is Going Viral and Deservedly So

Every field of science has a holy grail of some kind. For material scientists, this is the elusive room-temperature superconductor. As high tech as it may seem, superconductor research has been ongoing for over a century and LK-99 has the looks of a contender. Research today in China (below) supports the Korean scientists claims of the discovery. It is sure to win a Nobel just as graphene did. This is much bigger than that and will rank among the greatest discoveries ever made. Here's everything you need to know.

 

lead based superconductor LK-99
Low temp Superconductor (2020). Credit: Scientific American

What is Superconductor LK-99?

Superconductor LK-99 is a cutting-edge technology that has garnered widespread attention due to its purported extraordinary capabilities. At its core, a superconductor is a material that can conduct electricity without any resistance when cooled below a specific critical temperature. LK-99 is claimed to be one of the most advanced and efficient superconductors ever created, raising hopes of revolutionizing multiple industries, including energy, transportation, and medicine.

The Buzz Around Superconductors

The media frenzy surrounding Superconductor LK-99 cannot be ignored. Headlines proclaim its potential to change the world as we know it, offering cleaner energy solutions, faster and more efficient transportation, and medical breakthroughs previously considered impossible. But amidst all the hype, it's essential to separate fact from fiction. The implications of such a discovery are far-reaching and, no exaggeration whatsoever, a room-temperature, ambient pressure superconductor can potentially alter the course of human civilization.

 

room temperature LK-99 superconductor
Many changes are possible with ambient superconductors. Credit: X/@biofrostlol

What is Superconductivity Anyway?

Conductors move electricity (electrons) from a source to its destination in microchips, communication cables and electronics. Because this is a physical reality, the electrons in a solid bounce around the metal copper atoms in a disorderly flux or sea of electrons. But when cooled to a very low temperature. 16 (K)elvin is really low or just 16 degrees C above absolute zero, something unexpected changes. The material begins to superconduct: electrons pair up and transfer current without creating heat. Battery fires and overheating would be a thing of the past.

Superconductors have the ability to repel magnetic fields, allowing researchers to conduct fun experiments like levitating magnets over superconducting materials. This property could also lead to more efficient high-speed maglev (magnetically levitating) trains and the development of super strong magnets for various applications, such as wind turbines, portable magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) machines, and nuclear fusion power plants.

At its core, superconductivity occurs when electrons form pairs called Cooper pairs, and these pairs move through the material without scattering. This behavior leads to the absence of electrical resistance, resulting in the zero-resistance state that is characteristic of superconductors like being able to levitate above a magnet. While all materials possess some diamagnetism or are influenced by magnetic fields, superconductors are perfectly diamagnetic.

Understanding the "Impossible" Superconductor

The concept of a room-temperature superconductor, one that operates at ambient temperatures, has been a long-sought dream in the scientific community. The potential to achieve superconductivity without the need for extreme cooling could revolutionize various industries, from computing to energy infrastructure, outdated power grids to future facing transportation systems.

Initial Skepticism of LK-99 is Fading

The claim of a viral room-temperature superconductor made by South Korean researchers has faced intense scrutiny and skepticism from many scientists. In science, this is no surprise or discourtesy as peer-review and reproducibility by separate groups (with no relationship) are paramount to good science. Many will say some view the announcement as a communication/pre-print (not a full article) and refusing to share a sample are reasons to treat the claims with skepticism. This is without ground and scientists who publish work know better. They would simply put it on a magnet and watch it and receive credit where none is due.

The Race to Publish First

When a scientist makes a discovery, she is faced with peer review, journal editors and political disputes. Anyone with a brilliant idea can get scooped if not careful and waiting for full results to get published can take years particularly if you're working on an "impossible" problem like this one used to be called.  When the stakes are this high, communication journals (like Nature Communications) are the best way to get it out and why Arvix was used. Rapid publication is needed to ensure credit is given where it is due. The first to publish wins: Drs. Sukbae Lee, Ji-Hoon Kim, and Young-Wan Kwon from South Korea who have dedicated their careers to unlocking the secrets of superconductors.

A Guaranteed Nobel Prize

Allegations of data fabrication and misconduct have raised doubts about the legitimacy of the groundbreaking discovery are natural. For that reason, claims in a fiercely competitive, poorly-funded research environment are met with doubt, even outright dismissal because of prior false hopes or past fraudulent claims of success.

The study's authors have not shared existing samples of the material, citing intellectual property concerns and urging other groups to replicate the results. This is not unreasonable. It is purely a professional courtesy at the researcher's discretion to provide samples, no matter who is asking. First, proprietary information can be gleaned from authentic materials, people with "poor hands" may botch the experiment, or they may outright lie. Science is meant to be reproduced from scratch by anyone with the basic skills and scientific background.

The other award people are vying for, is not the Nobel, but patent ownership.

The Physics Behind Superconductivity

To comprehend the significance of the room-temperature superconductor claim, one must understand the physics that governs superconductivity. The Meissner effect and the behavior of electrons in a superconducting state play crucial roles in unlocking the mysteries of these materials. Over a century the major changes have dealt with extremes of temperature or pressure and many different materials from copper oxides, to cuprates, and combinations of atoms to make superconductors.

The Skepticism: How Could a Research Group Hit a Home Run Like This?

This is a reasonable question. The researchers decided to take a DoE supercomputer and use it find the ab initio (quantum mechanical) data to predict the structure. The crystal structure of the material was also predicted reliably with AI. The means of making it are being tested by people, even teens, around the world. With the quantum internet taking shape, generative AI expanding this will make several converging tech themes meet more efficiently.

The Cu-d manifold refers to the d electrons and the energy levels. One figure shows a potential surface at zero electron volts (eV), or the baseline for superconductivity at ambient temperature and pressures. Another figure at the temperature 369.6-370.6K (96.45-97.45 C) shows a change in heat capacity compared to the control, YBCO (high temp, no pressure superconductor). In this particular experiment, the temperature was raised to almost the boiling point of water (100 C) because the control or reference demands it. The optimal temperature is much higher than anyone expected for a superconductor.

The critical temperature of LK-99 is claimed to be 127°C (a "boiling-water superconductor")

Very simply, during the formation of the material, Cu (conductor) atoms replace the lead (insulator) atoms and this interaction causes the size or volume to shrink to the proper 3D structure required to superconduct at ambient temperature and pressure. No other superconductor so far has tackled both problems at the same time which explains the initial skepticism.

LK-99 vs YBCO
Credit: Arvix

LK-99 Results Have Been Duplicated, Twice

While the buzz around Superconductor LK-99 continues to grow, the scientific community remains cautiously optimistic. Researchers however at Huazhong University of Science and Technology posted on X that they achieved the same result with a sample of the material prepared as the authors specify.

Lawrence Berkelely Lab announced today that their simulation supports the Korean researchers' hypothesis that the material is a room temperature superconductor based on electronic band structure and Cu-d orbitals (a "band gap"). The remaining steps needed to confirm the findings are instrumental and should be routine: X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), EPR, heat capacity, and SQUID data (Heat Capacity and Superconducting Quantum Interference Device).

lawrence Berkely lab supports LK-99
Credit: Lawrence-Berkeley Lab

 

Demonstrating that the Korean researchers were correct and reporting their observations accurately, shortly after, a second group posted their own duplication of LK-99 working and other reviewers like MIT are working to verify the results with no sample, while others are modeling the data.

 

Chinese researchers replicate the Korean LK-99 room temperature
Credit: X/Huazhong Univ of S&T. Targum.video

LK-99 Will Become a Household Name This Week

Rumors spread and rumors of scientific discovery spread like fire. The world is watching a revolution in technology unfold one after another. A second research team posted on X this afternoon that they duplicated the experiment, making both poles of the fragment levitate by magnetic repulsion.

LK-99 is touted as a game-changer in the energy sector, promising almost zero energy loss during transmission. This claim, if true, could significantly reduce our carbon footprint and usher in a greener and more sustainable future. However, before accepting these assertions, we must critically analyze the evidence and evaluate the tests conducted to demonstrate its efficiency. So far, the research is passing all tests for scientific legitimacy which has been running thin lately. Speculators are already beginning to ask, "which stocks will go up if LK-99 is real?" That's a good question, because LK-99 appears to be the real deal.

 

References:

Superconductor Pb10xCux(PO4)6O showing levitation at room temperature and atmospheric pressure and mechanism.

Original: https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/2307/2307.12008.pdf

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